Baruch Nevo

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http://study.chosun.com/news/article/article_view.aspx?seq=18800&scode=1&tcode=0&PAGE=0&mkey=0 (Feb 17, 2008) 영재교육 석학 2인의 영재교육론 By 류재광 기자

조셉 렌줄리 교수… 시험 점수와 영재성은 별개
바루흐 네보 교수… 6~18세 연령대 가장 효과적  

“영재교육에 있어 유일무이한 정답은 없다. 다양한 유형의 영재성을 발견하고 키워주는 것이 가장 중요하다.”

세계적인 영재교육 석학인 바루흐 네보(Baruch Nevo·67) 이스라엘 하이파대학 심리학 교수조셉 렌줄리(Joseph S. Renzulli·72) 미국 코네티컷대 석좌교수가 던진 충고다. 지난 12일 한국교원단체총연합회의 영재교육원(ITEK) 개원 기념 학술세미나 참석차 내한한 두 교수로부터 영재교육론에 대해 들어봤다.

■조셉 렌줄리 교수

미국 국립영재연구센터 소장과 백악관 영재양성특별팀 자문위원을 맡고 있는 렌줄리 교수는 지적 능력뿐 아니라 과제 집착력과 창의성을 영재의 조건에 포함시킨 현대 영재교육의 대가다.

렌줄리 교수는 “영재교육에 있어 유일무이한 답은 없으며 시험점수가 학생의 영재성을 보장하는 게 아니다”라며 “영재를 확실하게 판별할 수 있는 완벽한 시스템은 없기 때문에 학생이 어떤 분야에 관심이 있고 어떤 재능이 있는지 미리 충분히 살피는 것이 중요하다”고 말했다.

영재성과 높은 지능은 동일한 것이 아니기에 효과적으로 영재를 판별하기 위해서는 평가나 점수 이외의 다른 요인을 고려해야 한다는 것이다. 또 영재성은 절대적인 개념이 아니며, 어떤 판별을 통해서 선발된 영재들이 ‘영원히’ 영재일 것이라는 통념도 버려야 한다고 조언했다.

렌줄리 교수는 영재를 높은 ‘성취형 영재성’과 ‘창의·생산적 영재성’으로 나눈 뒤 사회적으로 유용한 물건이나 작품을 만들어내는 창의·생산적 영재성이 더 중요하다고 강조했다. 그는 “창의·생산적 영재성은 종합적이고 문제해결적인 사고과정능력이 필요하고 역사적으로도 진정한 영재성을 드러낸 개인들도 대부분 창의·생산적 영재였다”고 말했다.

그는 일반교육에서의 영재교육 필요성도 역설했다. 그는 “파도가 올라가면 모든 배가 같이 올라가는 법(A rising tide lifts all ships)”이라며 “모든 학생들에게 영재교육을 실시해 전체적인 학습능력 향상뿐 아니라 성적이 나쁜 학생이라도 자신이 가진 영재성을 깨달을 수 있는 기회를 얻도록 해야 한다“고 조언했다.

■바루흐 네보 교수

네보 교수는 이스라엘 교육부 영재교육위원회 위원 및 지능실험연구실 소장을 맡고 있는 세계적인 영재교육 권위자이다. 그는 “탁월한 학문 수행능력이나 학업성취도만으로 영재성을 판별해서는 안되며 사회적 리더십, 창의성, 스포츠, 예술 등 비학문 분야의 능력도 영재성 개념에 포함시켜야 한다”고 강조했다.

네보 교수는 영재교육 시작 시기에 대해 ‘어느 정도 성숙한 시기’를 꺼냈다. 네보 교수는 “너무 어릴 때는 어떤 재능이 있는지 측정하기가 힘들다”며 “적어도 6세 이상부터 18세 사이의 연령대가 영재교육을 효과적으로 받을 수 있는 적기”라고 말했다.

그는 국가차원의 장기적인 영재교육 로드맵을 주문했다. “한 국가나 기관에서 영재교육 프로그램을 만들 때는 로드맵이 필요하며 특히 각 나라가 처한 특정한 상황과 요구에 부합해야 한다”는 것이다. 네보 교수는 특히 “영재교육 분야에 기울인 노력의 결과는 오랜 시간이 흐른 뒤에 가시화될 수 있다”며 “성급히 단기간에 결과를 기대해선 곤란하다”고 충고했다.

http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/787999.html (November 18, 2006) You don’t have to ‘gifted’ to be ‘excellent’: By Or Kashti 
 
Israel should expand its education programs for gifted children, and invest more in identifying such pupils at a younger age, according to a report prepared by the Education Ministry’s Steering Committee on Furthering the Gifted.

The committee said establishing a number of schools throughout the country for gifted pupils should be seriously considered. The panel’s recommendations are due to be discussed by the ministry’s director general, Shmuel Abuav, and other officials soon.

About 12,000 pupils participate in various programs for gifted children, a figure that constitutes one percent of the country’s pupils.

Identifying gifted pupils begins in the second and third grades, and is carried out in two stages: first by the school in which the children are enrolled, and then through the use of special tests prepared by the Sald Institute according to ministry criteria.

Programs for gifted children include after-school activities, weekly programs for educational enrichment, and special classes incorporated in regular schools.

The selection process for special programs has been criticized due to the relatively high percentage of girls and low percentage (10 percent) of Israeli Arab children. The number of children of Ethiopian immigrants participating in the programs is also very low.

Two-thirds of the schools with classes for gifted pupils are in Tel Aviv and the country’s center.

Professor Zamira Mevorah of Bar Ilan University headed the steering committee, which included Nobel laureate Professor Aharon Chehanover of the Technion, Safed College President Professor Baruch Nevo, and the Director General of The Society for Excellence through Education, Hezki Arieli.

The committee was asked to formulate an Education Ministry policy addressing the needs of gifted children following the presentation of a report by Nevo two and a half years ago.

Among the panel’s recommendations is expanding the number of gifted children by broadening the criteria to encompass two main groups: those with the highest marks, who constitute one percent of all pupils and will be termed “gifted,” and those deemed “excellent” with marks placing then in the four percentile points after gifted pupils.

The tests for identifying gifted pupils will be formulated according to “local norms,” which the committee explained as being adapted to various regions throughout the country. These examinations will not only include mathematics and sciences, but also seek out those with exceptional talents in the arts, music and writing.

The committee also recommended “adding elements dealing with motivation, persistence and creativity” to the current examinations.

“According to our plan, an excellent pupil will be one in every 20 children, and a gifted [pupil] will be one in 100,” a committee source said. “This is a significant increase in the number of pupils, but it is still unclear whether there is available funding for the program,” the source added.

“Our recommendations are to deepen and broaden programs for the gifted,” another committee member said. The aim of the examinations “are to grant an equal chance to children from different backgrounds. It is unfair to compare the capabilities of a child from northern Tel Aviv with those who grew up in the periphery.”

Another panel recommendation is to identify gifted pupils at an earlier age. Although there is no unanimous agreement among experts over the value of selection at an earlier age, the proposal involves children as young as four. 
 

http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/787999.html (November 18, 2006) You don’t have to ‘gifted’ to be ‘excellent’: The selection process for special programs has been criticized due to the relatively high percentage of girls and low percentage (10 percent) of Israeli Arab children. Two-thirds of the schools with classes for gifted pupils are in Tel Aviv and the country’s center. (…) Another panel recommendation is to identify gifted pupils at an earlier age. Although there is no unanimous agreement among experts over the value of selection at an earlier age…

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/17/business/worldbusiness/17france.html?scp=1&sq=Bouton+ancien&st=nyt (February 17, 2008) In France, the Heads No Longer Roll: While the trader, now jailed, wasn’t a graduate of a top school or a member of an elite group like the Club des Cent, Société Générale’s embattled chief executive, Daniel Bouton, is both. And the fact that Mr. Bouton and other top managers of the bank have kept their posts since the scandal erupted nearly a month ago has unleashed criticism here that the French elite is an ancien régime – playing by old rules (largely its own) and quick to shift blame to protect itself. (…) Members of the elite make no secret of the rules of the game. “When you are part of a small group, it is difficult to have an attitude of antagonism toward someone else in the group,” says V. (…) AT least half of France’s 40 largest companies are run by graduates of just two schools, the École Polytechnique, which trains the country’s top engineers, and ENA, the national school of administration. That’s especially remarkable given that the two schools together produce only about 600 graduates a year, compared with a graduating class of 1,700 at Harvard…

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